According to the American Heritage Dictionary, ecology is “The science of the relationship between organisms and their environments [ … Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 6, pp. The funding was agreed and a discharge and transfer of care CPA was arranged. Social workers utilizing systems theory view societies and social groups as dynamic systems. For a clinical social worker, the ecological systems theory is the most helpful in phase one of the helping process. Specific aspects of DE’s presenting problems were managed by referral to appropriate agencies, thus widening his system of support. Further crucial principles of circularity are asking about specific behaviours that occur, rather than feelings or interpretations and ranking behaviours in order to highlight differences (Barker, 1998; Dallos and Draper, 2000). These painful discrepancies cannot then be easily assimilated into our conscious view of ourselves and the world because of the anxiety they arouse and the consequence is a “defence mechanism” activated to subdue this psychic pain. System Theory in Nursing Thus, the flow of unconscious material (e.g. Reports from the house manager and other professionals also indicated that this was the case. Social workers apply systems theory to micro, meso , and macro levels of practice, in order to understand the dynamic interrelations between individuals, families, institutions, and societies. Nisselly Rossell, Keri Welborn, Christie Alston, Kristy Monroe, Jennifer Bourne, Melanie Hines
According to Selvini Palazzoli et al. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). Changes within systems can occur, or be stimulated, in various ways. Social workers are expected to apply a non-linear and holistic lens to their work with various systems and the individual for multi-causal solutions. It is important to note that this approach is distinct from merely providing instruction or information, in that it facilitates change through the process of thinking and reasoning. The second part depicts how system theory helps the project. *You can also browse our support articles here >. The systems idea could be a helpful method for pondering the occupation of managing. Limitations of. They view the parts as mutually determinate with the whole. … and then who?”, “when you are worried about the devil attacking you, what do you do?”, “what would your keyworker say was most important for you to get sorted out?”. Although this paradigm was initially applied to the physical world (mathematics, biochemistry, etc), it was adopted by the therapeutic community in order to formulate an understanding of systems comprising individuals and organisations. Benson, Long and Sporakowski), however the use of labels such as “schizoaffective” and “enhanced CPA” would seem unavoidable when working within a multidisciplinary team which necessitates communicating with equivalent language. Social work works with science-based methods for the well-being of individuals, families etc. Guerin and Pendagast, 1976), in that it gives a concise graphic summary of the composition of the systems surrounding an individual. New York: Guildford Press. Randolph, C., Goldberg, T.E.
Family Process, 27, pp. VAT Registration No: 842417633. This has generally been reported as existing within the families of those with schizoaffective disorders and is thought to represent deficits in communication and overinvolvement. What does he say or do?”, “who is most worried about DE using drugs/alcohol?”. The ecological systems theory is helpful on both the micro and macro level of social work. Similarly, by considering the role of drugs and alcohol in mediating his distress and enabling him to cope with his situation, other means of coping were explored. Journal of Family Therapy, 5, pp. His progress with these agencies was ongoing. 1 7th Mar 2017 DE’s engagement with community forensic services was valuable in gaining further perspectives into his care. and the social reform/change of social systems, relying on human rights, especially social justice, as regulative ideas. There were various strands to my intervention with DE, within which I attempted to address the issues outlined in the above hypotheses. 71-76. and Pendagast, E.G., 1976. “very low, always tired and very sad”. Systems are made up of subsystems (e.g. focuses on the reduction of uncertainty which is achieved by the acquisition of information . The literature associated with schizoaffective disorders has suggested that the onset of the illness can produce cognitive deficits, including memory impairment, planning, social judgement and insight (Randolph, Goldberg and Weinberger, in Heilman & Valenstein, 1993; James and Murray, 1991). Additional presenting concerns reported by DE included an impoverished family support network and poor finances. It was decided that employing systems theory would be the most efficacious approach in managing the service user’s needs. O’Brian, C. and Bruggen, P., 1985. Therefore, overnight stays and extended stays for a week prior to discharge were arranged. schools and 4 systems within social work; the change agent system, the client system, the target system and the action system. theory, for the transdisciplinary study of complex phenomena. delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder) were actively encouraged, explored and participated in. Some of the ideas and concepts systems theory has brought to the field include: The service user was a 32-year old male of Afro-Caribbean origins, with a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder dating back to his early teens. The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the Task-centred and client-centred approaches to Social Work Intervention. 2 In order to best meet the needs identified and ensure an optimal rehabilitation programme, DE’s care plan incorporated day care activities, psychological and community forensic input. General Systems Theory: Foundations, Development, Application. Rather than reducing a phenomenon (say, the human body) to a
The following case study will detail an intervention with a 32-year old service user who was referred with a range of presenting issues and needs. Thus, the “fit” between DE and this particular system was enhanced. Both DE and the multidisciplinary team involved in his care agreed that he required 24 hour residential care, as previous supported accommodation had not been able to facilitate his needs and he had relapsed, leading to his admission to hospital under section. Bibliography: Germain, C. & Gitterman, A. Positively connoting DE’s behaviour consisted not only in reinforcing and praising his attempts to change, but also in acknowledging that his problem behaviour was serving to express his dissatisfaction with the situation he was in. Over time, a systemic hypothesis evolved which incorporated the role of impaired family functioning and an early sense of abandonment by DE’s natural mother combined with the loss of his secondary, foster mother contributing to the development of a schizoaffective disorder. In, Social Work Management and Practice. It gives a skeleton to envisioning internal and external environment components as a coordinated entirety. The theory’s primary concern is on patient’s response to potential or actual environmental pressures.Also, how, REDUCTIONISM GENERAL SYSTEMS Patterns of Brief Family Therapy: An Ecosystemic Approach. In terms of DE’s behaviour within his care home, it would be important to consider physiological factors many of the concerns reported. Question #1: Social Work and Systems Theory Social Work as a concept and a career is simple, yet difficult to define. Ecological Systems Theory and Person-in-Environment Concept: The ecological systems theory is perhaps the most important theory within the social work context as it analyzes the development of an individual based on his/her interaction with his/her immediate and external environment. A system can be an organization as a whole, departments within the organization, and groups within the organization or processes (Hayajneh, 2007). The involvement of DE’s grandmother and uncle was also an integral part of discussing his difficulties and it was postulated that at some point in the future, systemic family therapy might be helpful in providing some cohesion to DE’s family structure and enabling communication with this part of his system. Reference this. 1-15. It was apparent that a complex array of family, social and agency networks existed, indicating that the focus of any intervention would necessitate the addressing of these various components and their role in the service user’s functioning. Reder, P. and Fredman, G., 1996. Subsequently, his mother had refused all contact with him and would not engage with any of his care. Communication and feedback mechanisms between the parts of a system are important in the functioning of the system. Discuss Regularitys Assumption in Collective Production Performance Essay. A transfer CPA to the community team was organised in order to maintain DE in the community and facilitate his recovery. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The ecosystems theory is a combination of ecology and general systems theory. Looking for a flexible role? In DE’s case, it appeared that the effects of his drug and alcohol use and of rejection issues had not been fully considered by staff at the care home and therefore the consequences of these had been able to escalate into relapse. Get help with your writing. Discuss Systems Theory in Social Work Practice Essay. For the substance misuse reported he was referred to a drug and alcohol worker. Specific social work practice theories based on systems theory have emerged to help social workers understand and address individual and social problems. Three suitable placements were identified which were concomitant with the needs identified in DE’s care plan, that is: 24 hour residential accommodation with staff to supervise his medication, encourage independent living skills and monitor his activities and behaviour to identify relapse indicators. All systems have boundaries within which both physical and mental energy is exchanged. Use of theories in social work practice gives it a strong knowledge base. Tomm, K., 1988. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, pp. Using this method I identified myself as the change agent system, Amy, her father, and stepmother as client/target systems, with the whole family, myself and school as the action system. Families and other social groups are systems having properties which are more than the sum of the properties of their parts. However, clearly DE’s perceived solution only served to escalate and maintain the essential difficulty, that of his lack of engagement with help and disruptive behaviour. I will initially explain their main principles, advantages and disadvantages and apply them to the assessment, planning and intervention of the above case study. A principal feature of circularity is the capacity of the therapist to consider feedback from the systems involved and to invite each part of the system to relate their perspectives of other subsystems, thereby metacommunicating (Selvini Palazzoli et al. In concordance with a systemic approach, DE’s needs and preferences, as well as opinions derived from members of the multi-disciplinary team, were matched with available accommodation. In addition, questions constitute a much stronger invitation for users to become engaged in a conversation and process than do statements, instructions of information and provides stimulation to think through problems alone, thus promoting autonomy and a sense of personal achievement (Payne, 2002). Although Freud cautioned against the use of psychoanalysis in schizophrenia, as he believed that sufferers of schizophrenia had regressed to a state of “primary narcissism”, a phase early in the oral stage before the ego has differentiated from the id (Freud, 1905), more contemporary psychoanalysts have adopted a different approach. In addition, non-compliance with his care plan was recognised as a precursor to relapse. parental, marital, siblings) which are themselves parts of larger suprasystems (e.g. Current Issues on Management: Innovation and Change Management, Compare and Contrast the Bible to the Koran Essay, Essay about Radical Feminism and Hip Hop. According to this theory, systems such as the family comprise of a set of things that constitute something whole (Parsons, 1951). RSP The basic tenets of systems theory, of being respectful of all perspectives and attempting to empower the service user to implement change, are congruent with the CPA model of working. The aim of this assignment is to analyse my intervention with a service user and her family whilst on my 80-day placement. This assignment will also include Germain and Gittermans life model, and it will be related back to the case study that has been provided. Clearly in this case, I was unable to maintain a non-expert stance. Family Prcess, 24, pp. a scientific/philosophical approach and set of concepts, rather than a
By the end of the intervention, I believe that DE was able to engage in a more useful way with the various components of his system and was more settled in his placement as a result. Benson, M.J; Long, J.K. and Sporakowski, M.J., 1992. No plagiarism, guaranteed! In addition, possessing an understanding of the possibilities for intervention within each system enabled me to think creatively about different courses of action and potential outcomes (Byng_Hall, 1988). Applying systems theory to a service user such as DE, who may have the cognitive deficits previously described, raises some important ethical issues. A further contributing factor may have been DE’s move to the UK following his bereavement and the sense of confusion and alienation this may have instilled. A history of systems ideas in social work. In, K.M. It was interesting to note ME’s partner, JM’s, explanation of ME’s low mood, “the weather”, a subject he had mentioned at the outset of the encounter. An open system has characteristics of interacting with the environment (Encyclopedia of Management, Systems theory:
Evaluation of family system and genogram. Social workers deal with a variety of clients from different ethnicity, age, gender, disability and social inequalities.
International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 23, pp. It is complex and challenging profession. Leff, J., 1994. Bentovim, A. and Bingley Miller, L., 2002. In accordance with the principles of a systems intervention, a non-judgemental stance was maintained throughout (Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 2004) and the notion of partnership was promoted (Dallos and Draper, 2000). As DE was on enhanced CPA, it was important to consider multiple care needs and to recognise that he was more likely to disengage with care. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Such information served to enrich the hypothesis that was being formulated of DE’s needs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Only through doing this was it possible to challenge the existing belief system, suggesting new and different definitions of relationships. NURS – 6053N-12: Interprofessional Organizational and Systems Leadership The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the Task-centred and client-centred approaches to Social Work Intervention. Freud believed that the unconscious conflicts he uncovered – in dreams, in memory lapses, in neurotic symptoms – always referred to certain critical events in the individual’s early life. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. This report has three sections to exhibit a brief overview of system theory and how to apply it for project and project management. From the perspective of the social worker, plans were therefore required to implement Section 117 and organise appropriate after care and accommodation. 615-623. General systems theory was first proposed by von Bertalanffy (1968) as a universal theory of the organisation of parts into wholes. 1980a; Byng-Hall, 1988; Cecchin, 1987). Working with the families of schizophrenic patients. For example, a family is seen as a system in itself but each member of the family may have different subsystems, such as their peers, education, job, recreational activities, etc. This ecological perspective is a framework that is based on concepts associated with systems theory. Initially, difficulties were experienced with DE’s compliance with some house rules and I arranged a meeting with DE and the house manager in order to discuss and negotiate these in order to prevent a breakdown of the placement. A specific use of circular questioning is to define the problem (Bentovim and Bingley Miller, 2002). The Assessment of Family Competence, Strengths and Difficulties. and Weinberger, D.R., 1993. London: Pavillion. THEORY Furthermore, being non-judgemental in relation to all DE’s presenting needs (for example, his drug and alcohol misuse) was very difficult and whilst my approach could encompass the evolution of a shared understanding of this behaviour, ultimately the negative impact on DE’s mental health and stability of his placement would need to be acknowledged. The relationship to help: interacting beliefs about the treatment process. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Walden University The house manager was asked questions such as, “What does DE do instead of sticking to the rules?” and “what reasons do you think he has for not complying?”. 457-467. Therefore, by acknowledging the pain of DE’s abandonment by his mother with a referral to a psychologist, it enabled him to explore a different way of interacting with this part of his system. Company Registration No: 4964706. Most people are part of a variety of systems and subsystems. World System Theory is like colony philosophy recommends that having it made that each community help from other community’s and maneuver those community’s civilians. 167-179. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. The neuropsychology of schizophrenia. The First part is the literature review of system theory and key fundamentals of system theory. 112-127. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Generally, they want to identify how a system functions and what aspects of that system have a negative impact on people. It was first
General Systems theory, psychiatry and psychotherapy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (suppl. The problem of the referring person. In, P.J. By seeking information from DE and others within his system, I was able to obtain as many perspectives as possible and construct an understanding, or story, as to how he had come to be “stuck” and enable him to move in a more helpful direction. In continually seeking the views of DE and perspectives from other parts of his system, it was possible to create a clearer picture of the characteristics of the problem and to foster a sense of ownership on the part of DE. These deficits, combined with the lack of family support and underlying psychological issues, could have resulted in the issues with compliance and rule-breaking reported by the professionals involved in DE’s care. Hypothesizing, circularity and neutrality revisited: an invitation to curiosity. Systems theory is concerned with the structure of complex systems, with a special emphasis on how parts of these systems relate to each other and to the systems as a whole. In order to do this, it was necessary to identify DE’s wishes and preferences as far as possible, in addition to managing any risk perceived by the multidisciplinary team and the mental health tribunal. They are concerned, Systems approach is based on the fundamental principle that all aspects of a human problem should be treated together in a rational manner (Healy, 2005). However, it was possible to separate the two aspects of my role with DE and apply systems theory accordingly. Events such as the behaviour of individuals in a family are better understood as examples of circular causality, rather than as being based on linear causality. For example, DE was asked, “when you don’t comply with this rule, who is most upset?” and “what prevents you sticking to the rules?”. Therefore, it was important to maintain this stance when considering the circumstances surrounding DE’s case. 135-140. Assessing how families function through a systems theory lens allows social workers to examine and understand the different systems that affect the family and the individual. A pre-existing vulnerability to his mental health problems may have been activated by DE’s use of drugs and alcohol, possibly his coping mechanism to manage the previously described stressors. However, the use of systems theory creates space for thinking about the meaning and impact of these labels and is, therefore, at the very least a valuable and functional adjunct to the repertoire of strategies for managing complex cases. Selvini Palazzoli, Cechin, Prata and Boscolo, 1980a). Fleurida, C. et al., 1986. “Those who study systems theory tends to view any system as the result of a dynamic interrelationship between its component parts and its whole. 3-12. The potentially harmful influence of labels has been described in the literature of systems theory (e.g. Once more, circular questions were used to elucidate the problem and identify possible routes for change. 311-322. All work is written to order. Systems can be either an open system or a closed system. Selvini Palazzoli, M.S., Cechin, G., Prata, G. and Boscolo, L., 1980a. Other parts of DE’s system were also modified by posing circular questions as they allowed the various professionals and agencies involved to consider how helpful or unhelpful the strategies they employed to manage the exigencies of DE’s case were and to gain different perspectives. Who is it most a problem for?…” etc. There are two types of systems that this applies to. Healy stated “the original proponents of general systems theory used biological terminology to explain client needs, situations and the purpose of social work practice” (2005). These include the population that is different from its environment. This implies that each family comprises of different people (units) that constitute the whole. Ecological systems theory uses ideas that link together four different social systems that surround an individual; these systems are known as, micro-systems, meso-systems, exo-systems and macro-systems (Healy, 2005). Who disagrees? Drug and alcohol misuse were also evident, acknowledged by DE and verified by a positive test for cocaine. A further part of promoting DE’s compliance with his care plan was to use positive connotation, another important principle of systems theory (O’Brian and Bruggen, 1985). Definition When, in a system, multiple activities interact cohesively with each other in multiple ways, complexity takes shape. Using circular questions to derive new information about DE’s situation and the interconnectedness of the system’s components, a pattern emerged which suggested possible indicators of relapse. Aug 22, 2019. "General Systems Theory", 1968), as a reaction against scientific
Systems Theory Intervention . Three guidelines for the conductor of the session. DE’s opinions on the three potential placements were sought and a decision reached on the most suitable. I have divided this essay into relevant sections that cover an overview of systems ideas, general systems theory and ecological systems theory. Systems theory requires strategic thinking about the possibilities and limitations for change in the different systems affecting the user’s environment, as well as an understanding of the possibilities for intervention in each system (deShazer, 1982; Penn, 1982), therefore considering DE’s behaviour in specific settings and with specific individuals and agencies was a useful strategy. Throughout the ensuing discussions of plans, DE’s opinions were sought. Whilst on placement I critically explored the social work value base, having demonstrated how I worked within the framework of the social work process. Therefore, it could be said that there was a juxtaposition between CPA care management and using systems theory. He had been residing in a semi-secure forensic unit for more than two years and was detained under Section 3 of the Mental Health Act. Social systems can be applied to understand social organizations. A system was defined as “a complex of interacting elements”. The initial focus of intervention – to provide appropriate accommodation – was successfully completed. Bilson, A. and Ross, S., 1999. Family Process, 27, pp. The function of the problem is also a vital element within a systemic formulation (Reder and Fredman, 1996; Bilson and Ross, 1999) and in DE’s case his presenting issues appeared to represent both a communication of internal conflicts (loss, abandonment, etc) and as a solution to the problem perceived by him as inappropriate accommodation. 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