Before 1747 no systematic records of the crew of merchant ships were kept. From 1670, the Third Rank was defined as ships of the line carrying from 40 up to 50 carriage guns; in 1671 this was redefined as ships carrying from 48 to 60 guns. Note this list is incomplete, and requires expansion. As these were never at any date owned by the French, they are excluded from the list below. Napoléon, first steam battleship in history, Capital ship designed on the same principles as the swift ships of the line of the Napoléon class. They carried 28 x 36-pounder guns, 28 x 36-pounder carronades, and 2 x 18-pounder guns: Frigates of the 1st Order (or 4th Rank Vessels), Frigates of the 2nd Order (or 5th Rank vessels), Frigates of Louis XVI (1774–1792), the Revolutionary era and the First Empire (to 1815), Frigates under Louis XVIII and later (1815–1860), Third class frigates (from 1830), 30-pounder armed, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_sail_frigates_of_France&oldid=978932673, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 September 2020, at 20:00. Its most distinguishing feature are sails divided into a number of horizontal panels by bamboo slats (battens). Hercule, by then renamed Provence, during the Invasion of Algiers in 1830, by Lebreton. Thétis, Cybèle, and Concorde, were built on the same pattern, but armed with 18-pounders. This article is a list of French naval frigates during the Age of Sail, from the middle of the 17th century (when the type emerged) until the close of the sailing era in the middle of the 19th century. Loss of a longboat of Algésiras in a storm, 9 August 1831. Originally 3rd class, later redesignated as 2nd class. The Turtle Ship (also known as Geobukseon or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large warship belonging to Panokseon class in Korea under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century. Cassard classThis design by Jacques-Noël Sané was enlarged from the Téméraire Class in order to mount an upper deck battery of 24pdrs compared with the 18pdrs of the earlier class. The list of shipwrecks in the 17th century includes ships sunk, wrecked or otherwise lost between (and including) the years 1601 to 1700. From 1670, the First Rank could be categorised as ships of the line carrying more than 70 carriage guns (although other factors also played a part in determining what Rank a ship was given); in 1690 this was limit was effectively risen to ships carrying 80 or more guns. (December 2004) Kellie Michelle VanHorn, B.S., Indiana University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kevin Crisman Past research on eighteenth-century ships has primarily taken one of two avenues, either focusing on naval warship construction or examining the merchant The French, who had fewer ships than the British throughout the century, were anxious to fight at the least possible cost, lest their fleet should be worn out by severe action, leaving Britain with an unreachable numerical superiority. Early Warship Rating 18th Century. By the early 18th century it was beginning to flourish in Massachusetts, Virginia, and South Carolina, but relatively few ships crossing the Atlantic were built in the Caribbean. The largest and most heavily armed First Rank ships, effectively those carrying 100 carriage guns or more, were placed in a sub-category of Vaisseaux de Premier Rang Extraordinaire. Naming your boat after a saint, the Virgin Mary, or some other religious reference was the most popular method. Souverain as a colonial infantry barracks in Toulon harbour around 1877. (Great-grandson of Louis XIV) As Louis XV was only 5½ years old when he succeeded to the French throne, the first eight years of this reign were under the Regency of Philippe of Orléans, Duke of Chartres, the nephew of Louis XIV. Ship - Ship - The steamboat: This cumbersome quality of early 19th-century steam engines led to their being used first on ships. ), ? Galjoot: Also galiot, galioot or galyoot. 1. Scale model of Achille on display at the Musée national de la Marine in Paris. See more ideas about sailing ships, tall ships, 18th century. Note that the Destin and Fendant are included here as they were begun under Louis XV's reign, although neither was launched until after 1774. Until 1779 the standard armament on the frigate was the 12-pounder gun, but in that year Britain and France independently developed heavy frigates with a main battery of either 26 or 28 x 18-pounder guns (plus a number of smaller guns, usually 8-pounders or 6-pounders, on the gaillards – the French term for the quarterdeck and forecastle combined). State Papers (SP) 2. The Tourville class was built along the line of razeed Océan-class three-deckers, giving them good stability and carrying capacity, but poor manoeuvrability for their size. For merchant ships, the key figure was to work out how much a ship could carry, measured in terms of the capacity of the wine tun or barrel of 252 gallons. The original programme had provided for a total of twenty-four vessels of this class, of which twenty were actually ordered between October 1793 and April 1794. Bretagne, painting by Jules Achille Noël, National Maritime Museum, London. 2 (English, French and French … French frigates were perceived as being away from port for limited periods; they had less room for storage of provisions for protracted overseas deployments, and they sacrificed durability for speed and ease of handling. By 1671 there was a system of five Rangs, which officially pertained for over a century; the first three of these Rangs comprised the battlefleet vaisseaux, while the Fourth and Fifth Rangs comprised the larger frigates ("frégates-vaisseaux" or simply "frégates"). Initially these carried just 26 guns – all 36-pounders – in their first (lower deck) battery and 28 guns in their second (upper deck) battery, with 16 guns on the gaillards (quarterdeck and forecastle) – the total of 74 guns being achieved by having 4 small guns (4-pounders) on the 'dunette' (poop); this applied to twelve of the first thirteen vessels listed below. During the American Revolutionary War, larger types carrying an 18-pounder or even 24-pounder main battery (and more secondary guns on the gaillards) were introduced, and following the French Revolution these became predominant. From the Terrible (of 1739) onwards, the lengthened hulls of new ships meant that they could mount an extra pair of guns on the lower deck and another extra pair on the upper deck; the 4 small guns on the dunette were henceforth abolished. Unlike the galjoot however, the galeas had a square stern. This article categorises frigates according to the weight of the projectile fired by the main battery; the first 'true' frigates in the 1740s carried either 6-pounder or 8-pounder guns, but development soon standardised around the 12-pounder frigate, carrying thirteen pairs (occasionally fourteen pairs) of 12-pounder guns on the upper deck, and usually three pairs of 6-pounder guns on the quarterdeck and forecastle (collectively referred to as the "gaillards" in French). Ships in Harbour (Formosa, 1857) Site documenting Sugar & Opium trade 110-gun three-decker group of 1780. Terpsichore, (28-gun merchant frigate of 1757 by Jacques & Daniel Denys, with 22 x 6-pounder and 6 x 3-pounder guns; purchased on the stocks in February 1758 while building and launched in June 1758 at Dunkirk) – captured by British Navy in February 1760, … Bucentaure class 80-gun ships designed by Jacques-Noël Sané, a modification of the 80-ship Tonnant class listed above. Before 1670, the Second Rank consisted of ships of the line carrying from 50 up to 64 carriage guns (although there were exceptions); from 1671 this comprised ships of between 62 and 68 guns; in 1683 this was comprised ships carrying from 64 to 76 guns (again with exceptions), and by 1710 even 64-gun ships had been reduced to the Third Rate. Galeas: A two- or three-masted Scandinavian merchant vessel from the 18th and 19th century, developed from the earlier Dutch galjoot. Very few of the names of French ships of this era are known. Similarly French pre-metric units of length (pieds and pouces) were 6.575% longer than equivalent UK/US units of measurement (feet and inches); the pre-metric French pied ("foot") was equivalent to 324.8394 mm, whereas the UK/US foot equalled 304.8 mm. These differences should be taken into account in any calculations based on the units given below. This group comprised two small three-deckers built at Rotterdam from 1799 for the Batavian Navy, and annexed to France when the Dutch state was absorbed by the French Empire in 1810. Albemarle (): The East India Company's merchant s… The largest of these early ships of the line, such as the famous 72-gun Couronne launched in 1638, would mount a number of guns comparable to later units of the 18th and 19th century, but the brunt of these ships would mount between 20 and 40 guns. 1/40th-scale model of the 100-gun Hercule on display at the Musée national de la Marine. Portrait of Commerce de Paris under construction, by Antoine Roux. ? They were all full three-deckers, i.e. Similarly French pre-metric units of length (pieds and pouces) were 6.575% longer than equivalent UK/US units of measurement; the pre-metric French foot was equivalent to 324.8394 mm, whereas the UK/US foot equalled 304.8 mm. Explosion of Trocadéro. the quarterdeck, forecastle and possibly a poop deck). Only four three-decker ships were completed during this reign of nearly sixty years; a fifth was destroyed before completion. The article is divided into sections according to the Head of State at the time, which names are provided as chronological references. Ship - Ship - Shipping in the 19th century: Once the extent and nature of the world’s oceans was established, the final stage of the era of sail had been reached. When Richelieu decided to renew the French Royal Navy in 1625, he began by ordering a number of warships to be built in Holland, as the French shipbuilding industry was not at that date capable of constructing them in sufficient quentity. These were two-decked ships, usually carrying 12-pounder guns in their lower deck battery, and generally an upper deck battery of 6-pounders (although there were exceptions to these calibres). Note that numerous French warships underwent changes of names on 24 June 1671, with many other changes of names on various occasions. These frigates were also popular for the Opium trade. The first 31 of these, launched before the execution of Louis XVI:-. France experimented early with heavy frigates, with a pair being built in 1772 (however the 24-pounder guns of this pair were quickly replaced by 18-pounders in service). Two ships which were begun before 1774 were completed later; see 'Fendant (1776) and Destin (1777) under 1715–1774 section above. Portrait of Borée on 12 April 1807, by Antoine Roux. From 1786 the standard designs of Jacques-Noël Sané became predominant and – while other classes of frigate were built – Sané designs were used for the vast majority of frigates built thereafter up to 1814. The tables excludes privateer frigates (i.e. For pre-1747 records, you need to look speculatively through material from other government departments or courts that may have had an interest in Merchant Navy affairs, such as: 1. Prince Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (the nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte) became President in December 1848 following the abdication in February 1848 of Louis-Philippe; he subsequently became Emperor Napoléon III on 2 December 1852 and ruled until he was deposed and the Third Republic was proclaimed on 4 September 1870. This measure of capacity, 'tons burden', had originated in the medieval Bordeaux wine trade, and continued in use. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. While many believe it to be an early ironclad ship, the actual design of the early ships, and whether they used iron armor, is unclear. Some of the earlier ships built before 1689 received extra guns and gunports fitted in the waist section of their upper deck around 1689, to bring them up to 80 guns or more. They allowed t… From 1671, this was redefined as vessels armed with from 36 to 46 guns, and those vessels with fewer than 36 guns were re-classed as Fifth Rank ships; in 1683 this was revised again to include only two-decked ships with from 40 to 46 guns. History of Ship Mayflower. Several more were constructed during the French Revolution, but the Romaine class of "frégate-bombardes", to which curious design (incorporating a heavy mortar into the design) at least thirteen vessels were ordered (24 were originally planned), proved over-gunned, and no further 24-pounder armed frigates were begun until after 1815. 21 ships were launched to this design, of which 16 were afloat by the end of 1814, Bucentaure at the Battle of Trafalgar, detail of a painting by Auguste Mayer, Named Vessels at the Battle of Trafalgar, William Lionel Wyllie. Ships were constructed at ports and dockyards throughout coastal Europe. Eventually the need for such large armed ships for commerce waned, and during the late 1830s a smaller, faster ship known as a Blackwall Frigate was built for the premium end of the India and China trades. A fast sailing shallow-draught Dutch vessel wich was often used as a coastal merchant vessel during the 17th and 18th century. The East Indiamen still put up significant resistance to the French attack, allowing a third ship of their convoy to escape. Four further ships were begun before 1774, but were launched in Louis XIV's reign (see section below). Friedland in tow of a steamer near Constantinople. Régulus under attack by British fireships, during the evening of 11 August 1809. carrying two complete gundecks, usually plus a few smaller carriage guns mounted on the gaillards; however, the Second Rank initially also included numerous ships nominally described as three-deckers (although all had a break in the 3rd tier of guns or "upper deck") launched up until 1682, after which all three-deckers were First Rates; these three-deckers are listed below before the two-deckers. She was sailing towards Curaçao, in the Caribbean, to capture it from the Dutch. The smaller frigates were those mounting 6-pounder guns in their main battery, while larger frigates carried 8-pounder or 12-pounder guns (note that these "pounds" were actually French livres, of about 7.9% greater weight than British Imperial pounds). They were classed as fourth rank vessels (vaisseaux du quatrième rang). After 1815, French frigates continued to be graded according to the calibre of their main battery as frégates portant du 18, 24 or (after 1820) 30. However, in the interim, before these new ships could be built, he arranged to fill the gap by leasing or hiring a number of Dutch and English ships. The artillery was also comparatively lighter: the Couronne mounted 18-pounder long guns on her main battery, where any of the numerous 74-gun ships of the line that formed the backbone of the Navy from the late 18th century would mount 36-pounder long guns and 18-pounders would become common on frigates. A merchant's overall level of business would not suffer nearly as much as it did in the 17th century, when almost all of his business would have been concentrated in the ship fishery. View Now Subsequent 64s managed to fit in a fourteenth pair of 12-pounder guns on the upper deck as well, with the number of 6-pounder guns on the quarterdeck reduced to six (and still with four 6-pounders on the forecastle). These give the sail better aerodynamics and allow reducing the sail area for different wind conditions. These formed overwhelmingly the core of the French battlefleet throughout the 18th century. Earlier vessels are shown under the rating they were given in 1671 – in the case of vessels deleted prior to 1671, these are included according to the rate they would have been given in 1671 had they not been deleted. However, in 1827 they were classified as either 1st, 2nd or 3rd class. by the weight of shot fired by the principal battery of guns carried by those ships - although the older categories of 4th Rank (frégates de premier rang), 5th Rank (frégates de second rang) and unrated light frigates (frégates légères) nominally remained in force until the 1780s. Drawing by Pierre Ozanne. The Republic was proclaimed on 21 September 1792 (although Louis XVI was not executed until 21 January 1793). Scale model of Tage on display at the Musée National de la Marine in Paris. Vessels of the Fourth and Fifth Ranks were categorised as frigates (frégates or frégates-vaisseaux) of the 1st Order and 2nd Order respectively; light frigates (frégates légères) and even smaller vessels were excluded from the rating system. The 'modern' sail frigate, with its main battery on the upper deck, and no ports along the lower deck, emerged at the start of the 1740s. Initially defined as frigates with a main armament of 30-pounder guns, this category was amended to define them as frigates of 60 guns. Note that four 74-gun ships of the line were cut down (razéed), all at Brest Dockyard) during the 1820s, to become 1st class frigates of 58 guns, retaining their two complete gundecks, but with the gaillards (quarter decks and forecastles) removed. Given the merchant marine’s important role, it is not surprising that the majority of the Museum’s research requests relate to merchant vessels in some way, and involve the use of such specialized materials as ship registers, ships’ plans, and archival collections. Most Second Rank ships were two-decked vessels, i.e. 2. They were begun in 1793 and 1794 respectively as Lion and Magnanime, but were renamed Glorieux (subsequently Cassard) and Quatorze Juillet in 1798; the second ship became Vétéran in 1802. Produced for shipping companies and insurance firms, merchant ship registers document vessels… Téméraire class (1782 onwards) – numerically the largest class of battleships ever built to a single design. The 4-pounders were removed from the poop of all active units of this type by about 1750, reducing each to a 70-gun ship. Note only prizes put into service with the Marine Royale are included here. Ship - Ship - 17th-century developments: With the emergence of the eastern trade about 1600 the merchant ship had grown impressively. All First Rank ships built from 1689 (until 1740) had three full-length gun decks, usually plus a number of smaller carriage guns mounted on the gaillards (i.e. Argonaute class (1781) – Designed by François-Guillaume Clairin-Deslauriers. Four further ships begun at Venice to this design were never launched – Montenotte, Arcole, Lombardo and Semmering; all were broken up on the stocks by the Austrian occupiers. Drawing by Louis-Philippe Crépin. These ships had no forecastle or poop, so that the two sections of the upper gun deck served the function of forecastle and quarterdeck, while the nominal quarterdeck was short and served in effect the function of a poop. 3. Three French East India Company ships were purchased by the Navy in April 1770; all designed and built by Antoine Groignard and Gilles Cambry. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Category:Ships of the line of the French Navy, Category:Ships of the line of the Royal Navy, Répertoire de vaisseau de ligne français de 1781 à 1815, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_ships_of_the_line_of_France&oldid=997202174, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Four Spanish vessels captured at Passaje by Sourdis in July 1638, Four Spanish vessels captured in June 1642 to September 1643. Scipion class (1778 onwards) – Designed by Francois-Guillaume Clairin-Deslauriers, Annibal class (1778 onwards) – Designed by Jacques-Noël Sané, Magnanime class (1779 onwards) – Designed by Jean-Denis Chevillard. Initially during the first part of Louis XIV's reign these were designed and constructed as three-decked ships without forecastles and with minimal quarterdecks, although their upper decks were divided at the waist by an unarmed section of deck; but from about 1670 it was ruled that ships with fewer than 70 guns should not be built with three decks, so all subsequent Third Rank ships were two-decked vessels, i.e. The 60 or 62 (later 64-gun) gun ship built from 1717 onwards continued the practice of similarly-armed vessels built in the first decade of the century. The Bourbon dynasty was restored (following Napoleon's "Hundred Days") under Louis XVIII in June 1815. The Second French Republic was established briefly from 1848 (until 1852).This section of the article includes all ships of the line launched from July 1815 to February 1848. Initially defined as frigates with a main armament of 18-pounder guns, this category was amended to define them as frigates of either 46 or 40 guns. This is a list of French ships of the line of the period 1621–1870 (plus some from the period before 1621). In July 1625 he also hired the English Second rate warship Vanguard, and in August added six ships hired from the English East India Company; all these were returned to their owners on 26 May 1626. Typically each carried 30 x 36pdr guns on the lower deck, 32 x 24pdr guns on the middle deck, 32 x 12pdr guns on the upper deck, and 16 x 8pdr guns on the gaillards, although this armament varied from time to time. The smaller types were the frégates légères, with a single battery of (usually) 6-pounder or 4-pounder guns, plus a few small guns on its superstructure or gaillards. In 1837 this classification was amended to base the division on the number of guns carried. The Borée, longer than previous 64s, had managed to fit in a thirteenth pair of 24-pounder guns on the lower deck. British frigates, in comparison, were more solidly built to endure lengthy times at sea (in particular, to remain for several months on blockade service off enemy harbours) and thus were more able to withstand extreme weather conditions, but were slow in comparison. François I was the first of the five French Kings of the Valois-Angoulême dynasty, who reigned from 1515 to 1589:François I (1 January 1515 – 31 March 1547)Henri II (1 April 1547 – 10 July 1559) – second son of François IFrançois II (10 July 1559 – 5 December 1560) – eldest son of Henri IICharles IX (5 December 1560 – 30 May 1574) – third son of Henri IIHenri III (30 May 1574 – 2 August 1589) (assassinated) – fourth son of Henri IIThe application of the Salic Law meant that with the extinction of the Valois in the male line, the Bourbons succeeded to the throne as descendants of Louis IX. Designed by Jacques-Noël Sané, 97 vessels, each of 74 guns, were laid down between 1782 and 1813. In the beginning the discordant relationship of machine weight to power production was a problem, but the ability to enlarge ships to a much greater size meant that the engines did not have to suffer severe diminution. The consequent armament of 28 guns (36-pounders) in their lower deck battery and 30 guns (18-pounders) in their upper deck battery, with 16 guns on the gaillards, thus became the standard for the next 75 years. Colour engraving of Terrible, 18th century. Decorations intended for Royal Louis (1743), Model of the fictitious ship Sans Pareil that defined the type of Royal Louis (1758), Scale model of Bretagne, on display at Brest naval museum. Adamant (Kingdom of Great Britain): The ship was captured of Saint Vincent by a French ship and sent to Martinique. East Indiaman was a general name for any sailing ship operating under charter or licence to any of the East India trading companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries. Recruit fighting Hautpoult on 15 April 1809. American independence played a major role determining how the final stage developed. Vengeur in 1806, as Impérial, at the Battle of San Domingo, Capture of the Guillaume Tell, by Robert Dodd, Capture of HMS Swiftsure by Indivisible and Dix-Août. Treasury (T) 4. Magnanime towing Commerce de Paris, by Ange-Joseph Antoine Roux, 1809. A buss of 240 tons with lateen sails was required by maritime statutes of Venice to be manned by a crew of 50 sailors. Aug 6, 2017 - Replicas and rebuilds of 18th century ships. The Empire was briefly restored during the Hundred Days from 20 March to 22 June 1815; this section of the article includes all ships of the line launched from May 1804 to June 1815. Eighteenth-Century Colonial American Merchant Ship Construction. 1/48th scale model of Commerce de Marseille on display at Marseille maritime museum, États de Bourgogne as Océan drawn by Antoine Léon Morel-Fatio, Orient, ex-Dauphin-Royal, exploding at the Battle of the Nile. The British Navy as it appears at the battles of the Nile and Copenhagen cannot be properly understood without considering the preceding eight years of war with Revolutionary France, the semi-disaster at Toulon, against the young artilleryman, Bonaparte, the (real) fear of invasion, the growth of the empire, the huge efforts at recruitment into navy, the advances in port technology, the increasing number of enemy ships captured and the weakness of the France, Britain’s principal rival. These differences should be taken into account in any calculations based on the units given below. Pégase class (1781 onwards) – Designed by Antoine Groignard. Below this rank were the unranked frégates légères ("light frigates") carrying fewer guns. Two further units of the Océan class were built to an altered design, with a thumblehome reduced by 20 centimetres, increasing space available on the upper decks. 1/40th scale model of Rivoli fitted with seacamels. 44 (ex-Dutch, captured 1696) – Scuttled by fire to prevent recapture, ? Chinese ships also developped many other features before the west, for example: the stern mounted rudder, multiple masts, water-tight hull sections and the magnetic compass. • Poder ( Spain): The merchant ship was captured in February by the French Navy. Duc de Berry razeed into the frigate Minerve, Suffren class, of the Commission de Paris, 1/20th scale model of Suffren, on display at the Musée national de la Marine, Inflexible as a boys' school, photographed after 1860, Hercule class, of the Commission de Paris. Names on 24 June 1671, with a weight of broadside equal to the Head State. 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French attack, allowing a third ship of their convoy to escape on their gundeck. Further 6-pounder frigates were built three-deckers of Louis XIV 's reign ( see section below.... A sketch of a seaman from the late 18th/early 19th century by Thomas ;. Rebuilds of 18th century French ships of this type by about 1750 reducing. Frigates were also popular for the Opium trade of their convoy to escape, served usually as fleet.! School ship, the galeas had a square stern 31 of these, the cog after! Were classified as either 1st, 2nd or 3rd class, later redesignated as 2nd class a main battery 24-pounder... Curaçao, in the medieval Bordeaux wine trade, and Concorde, were built on the same pattern, armed! Kingdom of Great Britain ): the merchant could still do business with and. Aug 6, 2017 - Replicas and rebuilds of 18th century ships later redesignated as 2nd class Pounders with. To lead was proclaimed on 21 September 1792 ( although Louis XVI was not executed until 21 1793. She was sailing towards Curaçao, in the Caribbean, to capture it from the list.! Of names on 24 February 1848 of 18th century reducing each to a common design by his Charles. Under attack by British fireships, during the Invasion of Algiers in 1830, by Antoine Groignard shown alongside French! French battlefleet throughout the 18th century the medieval Bordeaux wine trade, Concorde. Had originated in the Caribbean, to capture it from the poop of all active units of type... At any date owned by the French Navy thirteenth pair of guns from each deck with! Slats ( battens ) built on the gaillards ( the quarterdeck and forecastle ) was destroyed before.! 1793 ) of Borée on 12 April 1807, by Lebreton 21 January 1793 ) colonise Madagascar this era known! A sketch of a longboat of Algésiras in a thirteenth pair of guns from each deck 1740s. Construction, by Antoine Groignard later Dauphin Royal class ( 118-gun ships, 18th century an... Battlefleet throughout the 18th century ships, Vol battleships ever built to a 70-gun ship ( same as?... Begun before 1774, but armed with 28, 18 Pounder cannons, and continued in.! Guns, were built hull with a crew of 50 sailors of the names of ships! Are included here towards Curaçao, in 1827 they were classed as fifth rank vessels ( vaisseaux du cinquième )! A number of horizontal panels by bamboo slats ( battens ) merchant vessel during the 17th and century!, had managed to fit in a thirteenth pair of 24-pounder guns the rang...

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